Reading and Writing Exercises

Exercise 1: Discourse Markers in a Paragraph

Read the following paragraph and identify the discourse markers used. Then, rewrite the paragraph without the discourse markers, and finally, add them back in with variations.

Original Paragraph:

The company experienced a challenging quarter. However, despite the financial setbacks, our team remains optimistic about the upcoming projects. Additionally, we have implemented cost-cutting measures. Therefore, we believe we can navigate through this difficult period.


  1. Identify the discourse markers in the original paragraph.
  2. Rewrite the paragraph without using any discourse markers.
  3. Add discourse markers back in, but this time, try using different ones for variety.

Exercise 2: Create Advanced Conditional Sentences

Compose three complex conditional sentences, each using a different type of advanced conditional structure. Ensure that each sentence has a distinct nuance and conveys a specific meaning.

Example Structures:

  1. Mixed Conditional: If he had studied harder, he would be more confident now.
  2. Future Real Conditional: If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the outdoor event.
  3. Present Unreal Conditional: If I were the manager, I would make some changes.