Advanced Verb Tenses

Objective: Dive deeper into perfect continuous tenses, conditional sentences, and reported speech.

Perfect Continuous Tenses:

  1. Present Perfect Continuous:
    • Formation: Subject + has/have + been + Present Participle.
    • Example: I have been studying for hours.
  2. Past Perfect Continuous:
    • Formation: Subject + had + been + Present Participle.
    • Example: She had been waiting for a while when the bus finally arrived.
  3. Future Perfect Continuous:
    • Formation: Subject + will + have + been + Present Participle.
    • Example: By this time next year, they will have been living here for a decade.

Conditional Sentences:

  1. Zero Conditional:
    • Formation: If + present simple, present simple.
    • Example: If it rains, the picnic is canceled.
  2. First Conditional:
    • Formation: If + present simple, will + base verb.
    • Example: If she studies, she will pass the exam.
  3. Second Conditional:
    • Formation: If + past simple, would + base verb.
    • Example: If I had money, I would buy a new car.
  4. Third Conditional:
    • Formation: If + past perfect, would + have + past participle.
    • Example: If they had known, they would have come to the party.

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech):

  1. Statements:
    • Change: Pronouns, time expressions, and verb tenses may shift.
    • Example: Direct: She said, “I am coming.”
      Indirect: She said that she was coming.
  2. Questions:
    • Change: Reporting verb + if/whether, and inversion may occur.
    • Example: Direct: He asked, “Are you coming?”
      Indirect: He asked if/whether I was coming.
  3. Commands:
    • Change: The reporting verb changes, and the verb tense may shift.
    • Example: Direct: She said, “Close the door.”
      Indirect: She told me to close the door.