Difference between the process of induction and deduction

Difference between the process of induction and deduction

The contrast between the two logical approaches to knowledge is usually thought to be that induction is the construction of a generalisation derived from analysing a series of particulars. In contrast, the deduction recognises an unknown specific situation based on its likeness to a set of known information. For example, if we analyse enough wild cats, we might conclude that they are a significant source of fleas (induction). If we stumble across footsteps on a dry island’s beach, we can deduct from our understanding of the person’s footprint that another person is or was on the beach (deduction).

However, both phrases can have more nuanced connotations. Let us begin with their origins and meanings. However, both phrases can have more nuanced connotations. Let us begin with their origins and meanings. Defined, to induce means ‘to lead or pull into, to infer, to convince,’ but induction means to bring to the conclusion, etc. To deduce might imply ‘to lead from, to derive from,’ or ‘to reach a conclusion from, etc. (Gould & Eldredge, 1993)

Induction is to induce (in connection to science and logic) is “to infer by reasoning, to direct to something as a consequence, or inference, to recommend or indicate,” and induction “as the act of inferring a basic law or principles from observation of individual cases.” Another definition is “adducing (collecting) a multitude of different facts, specific details, etc., especially with the aim of demonstrating a general proposition.”

While to deduce is “to prove or hold things to be obtained from etc.” or “to draw as conclusions from something recognised or supposed, to infer”; the deduction is, therefore “, inference through reasoning from generals to particulars,” or “the method of deducing from anything known or postulated” (Reilly, 1970).

Both terms refer to logic systems whose function is to tackle issues, in the first case by searching for a general characteristic (generalisation, conclusion, conjecture, suggestion, inference, etc.) in a set or collection of observations; in the second case by identifying a specific instance via its similarity to a set or group of known cases or observations. Induction and deduction are two techniques for problem resolution that are frequently distinct but never conflicting. The problem must be answered by determining the accuracy of the conclusion, inference, or other results from either perspective. Thus, induction and deduction are helpful, often complementary, problem-solving methods.

Check the following reference articles to learn more about the difference between the process of induction and deduction

Gould, S. J., & Eldredge, N. (1993). Punctuated equilibrium comes of age. Nature, 366(6452), 223-227.

Reilly, F. E. (1970). The stages of the method: Deduction and induction. Charles Peirce’s Theory of Scientific Method, 4(6), 57-78. 

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