Independent variable and dependent variables in research

Independent variable and dependent variables on research
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Independent variable and dependent variables on research

Independent variable and dependent variables in research – the effect of relaxation music on heart rate

In this article, we will talk about independent and dependent variables in research using the example of the effect of relaxation music on heart rate.

What are dependent and independent variables in research?

Understanding the causes of events is one of the study’s primary goals. In a cause-effect connection, the believed cause is referred to as the independent variable, and the presumed consequence is referred to as the dependent variable (Polit & Beck, 2013). In other words, an independent variable is assumed to impact another (dependent variable). A dependent variable is simply one that is reliant on an independent variable in some way.

The researcher is generally more interested in comprehending and forecasting the dependent variable. However, it is vital to recognize that variables are not fundamentally independent or dependent. In one research, an independent variable may be a dependent variable elsewhere. For example, one study might examine the influence of exercise (the independent variable) on osteoporosis (the dependent variable). In contrast, another may look at the impact of osteoporosis (the independent variable) on the probability of broken bones (the dependent variable). 

The effect of relaxation music on heart rate

The heart is an essential organ of the cardiac muscle that circulates blood to the entire body. Heart rate is related to the contractions of the various chambers of the heart and is regarded as myogenic. As a result, the pacer, also known as the Sino arterial node, controls the heartbeat autonomously of the nervous system. The node delivers signals to different nodes in the heart, which causes the chambers to constrict (Flannelly & Jankowski, 2014).

The frequency of heartbeats per unit of time, usually represented in beats per minute or bpm, is referred to as heart rate. The heart rate will be the dependent variable since it will alter or not as a result of the music.

The kind of music will be the independent variable; it will not be affected by the other variable. The phrase independent variable originated in the experimentation framework, and most studies aim to determine if an independent variable influences one or even more dependent variables. Furthermore, intervening, mediating, and moderating variables change the connection between independent and dependent variables overtly; they serve to explain the causal link between them.

Check the following reference articles to learn more about the Independent variables and dependent variables in research – the effect of relaxation music on heart rate
  1. Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice.
  2. Flannelly, L. T., Flannelly, K. J., & Jankowski, K. R. (2014). Independent, dependent, and other variables in healthcare and chaplaincy research. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20(4), 161-170.
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